View Surplus on Themeforest, our latest WordPress Theme. Or call us at 1-800-WPEXPLORER-ROCKS.

Canterbury Cathedral – Cathedral and Metropolitical Church of Christ (C. of E.)

Canterbury Cathedral:

Worship​

People​

History​

Contact

Dedication

Cathedral and Metropolitical Church of Christ, Canterbury.

Worship Details

Sunday Services

 

Holy Communion 08.00
Matins said (or sung by the King's School) 09.30
Sung Eucharist* 11.00
Huguenot Service (in French) 15.00
Choral Evensong 15.15
Evening Service* 18.30
* with Sermon  

Monday-Friday

Matins 07.30 (9.30 on Bank Holidays)
Holy Communion 08.00 – daily
and in addition  
  Major Saints Days 11.15
  Wednesday 11.15
  Thursday only 18.15
Evensong * 17.30

Saturdays

Holy Communion 08.00
Matins 09.30
Evensong * 15.15 (Occasionally 17.30)
* Evensong is usually sung, but occasionally is a said service.

Bishop, Dean & Chapter

 

The Most Revd. and Rt. Hon. Justin Welby, Archbishop of Canterbury, Metropolitan and Primate of All England.
 
​Dean The Very Revd. Dr. Robert Willis, Canon Treasurer Revd. Dr. Edward Condry*, Canon Pastor Revd. Clare Edwards*, Canon Librarian Revd. Christopher Irvine*, Archdeacon of Canterbury Ven. Sheila Watson, Archdeacon 0f Ashford Ven. Philip Down.
(​*Residentiary canons)

Lay members: Prof. Michael Wright, Mrs. Caroline Spencer, Mr. William Pettit, Brig. John Meardon.

Other Key Offic​ers

Precentor & Liturgist Revd. David Mackenzie Mills, Organist & Master of Choristers Dr. David Flood, Director of Finances Julie Wood.

Establishment

597

History

The Origins of Canterbury Cathedral

St Augustine of Canterbury, accompanied by a number of monks, arrived in the Kingdom of Kent, in the south east of England, as a missionary in 597AD. He had been sent from Rome by Pope Gregory the Great in 595-6, where he had been prior at St. Andrew’s Benedictine Abbey.  Significant factors prompting this ‘Gregorian Mission’ appear to have included:

- A desire by Gregory to recover and extend provinces which had been Christian and to have those provinces acknowledge papal supremacy;

- Papal recognition that Kent held ‘imperium’ over the southern kingdoms of Britain at the time and that this could prove helpful in extending the church’s influence;

- An interest to receive a delegation as expressed by the Kentish King Ethelbert and court, likely to have been strongly encouraged by Ethelbert’s Christian Frankish Queen Bertha;

- Support from neighbouring Christian Frankish rulers who could assist the mission and who might also have had political interests in extending influence over Kent and the English kingdoms.

Augustine was given a church at Canterbury (St Martin's, named after St Martin of Tours, still standing today) by King Ethelbert. This building had been a place of worship during the Roman occupation of Britain.

Augustine had already been consecrated a bishop by the time of his mission to Kent and was later made an archbishop by the Pope. He established his seat within the Roman city walls and founded the first cathedral there dedicated to Jesus Christ, the Holy Saviour. becoming the first Archbishop of Canterbury.

The Anglo-Saxon Cathedral

The oldest archaeological remains, found during excavations beneath the current cathedral’s nave in 1993, show parts of the foundations of an Anglo-Saxon construction, built over a Roman road. They suggest that the church consisted of a nave, maybe with a narthex, and side-chapels or portici to the north and south. The foundations re-used Roman stone with mortared stone and Roman bricks above. The scale and outline of the building are very much akin to the early church of St Peter and St Paul at St Augustine's Abbey (Sparks 1990, p8).

Another smaller building was discovered south-west of these foundations.  It was built slightly below the contemporary ground level and it seems of uncertain use, though maybe it was crypt or mausoleum.

At some point in the ninth or tenth century the original Anglo-Saxon building was replaced by a church that was larger (49 m. by 23 m.) with a squared western wall. It also seems to have comprised a central square tower, suggested by two cross walls and a 3 m. wide foundation on the south side. The building had large foundations for the aisles and a built-in grave was found in the north aisle near the west end. Archaeologists conjecture these works may have been undertaken at the behest of Archbishop Wulfred (805-32), and a subsequent rebuild, highlighted by an offset tile course on the south wall, to Archbishop Oda (942-58).

Until the 10th century the Cathedral community lived as the household of the Archbishop. During the 10th century, it became a formal community of Benedictine monks  It was during the reforms of Archbishop St. Dunstan (c909-988), that a Benedictine abbey named Christ Church Priory was added to the cathedral, though the formal establishment as a monastery seems to date to c.997. The community only became fully monastic from Lanfranc's time onwards (with monastic constitutions addressed by him to Prior Henry). St. Dunstan was buried on the south side of the High Altar.

Further redevelopment in the early eleventh century saw the squared western end replaced by a large polygonal apse with flanking hexagonal stair-towers, known as the Oratory of St. Mary. The Archbishop's seat may have been situated at the back of the apse, with an altar to the Virgin in front, towards the nave. Contemporaneously, the arcade walls appear to have been strengthened and towers added to the eastern corners. These works may have been instigated by Archbishops Lyfing (1013-20) or Æthelnoth (1020-38) after a Danish army, led by Thorkell the Tall and his brother Hemming, plundered and burnt the city and cathedral in 1011. The then Archbishop, Alphege, was taken hostage by the raiders and later killed at Greenwich on 19 April 1012, the first of Canterbury's five martyred archbishops. (Woodman 1981, p15). Examples of similar buildings at this time can be found in the Romanesque churches of the tenth and eleventh centuries in France, Germany and Switzerland.

The eleventh century Benedictine monk and chronicler Eadmer, who became the biographer of Archbishop St. Anselm and had known the Saxon cathedral as a boy, wrote that, in its plan, it resembled St Peter's in Rome. This reinforces the idea that the church took the shape of a basilica and had an eastern apse.  However, the archaeological evidence suggests that by the mid eleventh century, the cathedral was in fact 'bi-polar' with apses at botgh eastern and western ends. One theory is that the eastern apse included a large ring crypt, possibly housing the remains of St Dunstan. The church at this time, therefore, would have been around 75 m. in length. This would mean the cathedral would have been among the largest in northern Europe at this period.

The Norman Cathedral

A year after the Normans conquered England, the Anglo-Saxon cathedral was destroyed by a major fire on 6th December 1067.  It had suited Duke William of Normandy, now King William 'the Conqueror' to conciliate a number of the Anglo-Saxon church hierarchy in the immediate aftermath of the invasion, particularly while he was dealing with rebellions.  This included the controversial Archbishop of Canterbury, Stigand, who had served the Danish and Anglo-Saxon royal households since Cnut, but had also been excommunicated by no fewer than five successive Popes, primarily for holding the sees of Canterbury and Winchester at the same time.  In 1070, Pope Alexander II sent legates to England and at a council in Winchester at Easter 1070, Stigand was deposed.

William nominated Lanfranc, an Italian who had become a  noted teacher in Normandy after 1039, notably at the Abbey of Bec from 1045, where his pupils included the future Pope, Alexander II, and Anselm, who succeeded him as Archbishop of Canterbury. As well as his celebrated scholarship, William appears to have owed Lanfranc for his political support in ensuring that the Papacy recognised the legitimacy of his marriage to Matilda of Flanders.  Lanfranc was consecrated Archbishop of Canterbury on 29th August 1070.

With regard to his Cathedral, the ruins of the fire of 1067 were cleared and the reconstruction closely followed the pattern of the Abbey of St. Étienne in Caen, where Lanfranc had been the first abbot from 1066. The building stone was brought from Normandy. The new church was a cruciform shape.  At the east end was a relatively short choir ending in three apses.  The choir adjoined a low tower over the crossing.  To north and south were transepts with apsidal chapels. West from the crossing lay the nave, with nine aisled bays, culminating in a pair of towers at the west end. The whole was dedicated in 1077, the year of Lanfranc's death. Parts of the north wall and a staircase in the area of the north west transept – also called the Martyrdom – remain from that building.

Prior Ernulf was elected in 1096 and under his direction the east end was demolished and replaced with a 198 feet long extension from the crossing.  This doubled the length of the cathedral, which incorporated a large and elaborately decorated crypt below.  The work was completed in 1126 under Prior Conrad, who had succeeded Ernulf in 1107. The new choir had the form of a church in its own right, with its own transepts.  The east end was apsidal in shape, with three chapels opening off an ambulatory.

The internal decoration of the choir was noted by the contemporary chronicler William of Malmesbury, who wrote in his Gesta pontificum anglorum that "Nothing like it could be seen in England either for the light of its glass windows, the gleaming of its marble pavements, or the many-coloured paintings which led the eyes to the panelled ceiling above."

​The Murder of Archbishop Thomas Becket

The son of a London merchant, Thomas Becket received an education in London (possibly at St. Paul’s Cathedral Grammar School), Merton Priory in Surrey and he also spent around a year in Paris when he was about 20. After a while Becket acquired a position in the household of Theobald of Bec, Archbishop of Canterbury.

Theobald entrusted him with several important missions to Rome and also sent him to Bologna and Auxerre to study canon law. In 1154 Theobald made Becket Archdeacon of Canterbury and he was also granted other ecclesiastical offices (despite not being in orders or ordained) including a number of benefices, prebends at Lincoln and St Paul's Cathedrals, and the office of Provost of Beverley. His efficiency in those posts led to Theobald recommending him to the newly crowned King Henry II for the vacant post of Lord Chancellor, to which Becket was appointed in January 1155.

Henry and Thomas became firm friends, their similar personalities forming a strong bond between them. As Chancellor, Becket enforced the king’s traditional sources of revenue that were exacted from all landowners, including churches and bishoprics. King Henry even sent his son ‘Young’ Henry to live in Becket's household, it being the custom then for noble children to be fostered out to other noble houses.

It seemed natural to Henry that his friend and close servant should be nominated to the highest church post when Theobald died.  Henry had had disputes with Theobald over canon law and ‘benefit of clergy’ enabling clerics to escape justice in the king’s courts and had come to rely on Becket’s administrative efficiency as Chancellor in helping to underpin royal authority. Becket was nominated as Archbishop of Canterbury in 1162. His election was confirmed on 23 May 1162 by a royal council of bishops and noblemen. Henry hoped that Becket would continue to put the royal government first, rather than that of the church and indeed clergy and the monks at Canterbury were concerned that a secular was about to be foisted on them.

However, the famous transformation of Becket into an ascetic occurred at this time. He was ordained a priest at Canterbury on 2 June 1162, and the very next day was consecrated as archbishop by Henry of Blois, Bishop of Winchester among others.

A rift grew between Henry and Becket as the new archbishop resigned his chancellorship and sought to recover and extend the rights of the archbishopric. This led to a series of conflicts with the king, including Becket's attempts to regain control of lands belonging to the archbishopric and his views on Henry's taxation policies.  Most notable, however, was a continuation of the dispute over the jurisdiction of English secular courts over clerics. Attempts by Henry to influence the other bishops against Becket began in Westminster in October 1163, where the King sought approval of the traditional rights of the royal government, he argued, in regard to the church as they had been under Henry I, before they had become weakened during The Anarchy in Stephen’s reign.  Henry maintained the pressure, culminating in the Consitutions of Clarendon, where Becket was officially asked to agree to King’s rights or face political repercussions. In  assemblies at Clarendon Palace in January 1164 most of the higher English clergy accepted, in sixteen clauses or constitutions, less clerical independence and a weaker connection with the Papacy.  Finally, even Becket expressed his willingness to agree to the substance of the Constitutions of Clarendon, but he refused to formally sign the documents. In the following October, Henry summoned Becket to appear before a great council at Northampton Castle  to answer allegations of contempt of royal authority as well as charges of corruption during the period he had been Chancellor.

The argument between Henry and Becket became both increasingly personal and international in nature. Henry was stubborn and bore grudges, while Becket was vain, ambitious and overly political: neither man was willing to back down.  Both sought the support of Pope Alexander III and other international leaders, arguing their positions in various forums across Europe. The situation worsened in 1164 when Becket fled to France to seek sanctuary with Henry's enemy, Louis VII. Henry harassed Becket's associates in England, and Becket excommunicated religious and secular officials who sided with the king.  The pope supported Becket's case in principle but needed Henry's support in dealing with Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, so he repeatedly sought a negotiated solution; the Norman Church also intervened to try to assist Henry in finding a solution.

By 1169, however, Henry had decided to crown his son Young Henry as king of England to ensure an orderly succession. This ideally required the acquiescence of Becket as the Archbishop of Canterbury, traditionally the churchman with the right to conduct the ceremony. Furthermore, the whole Becket matter had become an increasing international embarrassment to Henry. He began to take a more conciliatory tone with Becket but, when this failed, the Archbishop of York, along with the bishop of London, and the bishop of Salisbury, crowned Young Henry King at York. Becket was allowed to lay an interdict on England, forcing Henry back to negotiations. Pope Alexander sent delegates to impose a solution to the dispute. At that point, Henry offered a compromise that would allow Thomas to return to England from exile. The parties finally came to terms in July 1170 but just as the dispute seemed resolved, in November, Becket excommunicated the Archbishop of York and the bishops of London and Salisbury for breach of Canterbury's privilege of coronation. While the three clergymen fled to the king in Normandy, Becket continued to excommunicate his opponents in the church after he returned to England in early December, news of which also reached Henry. The king was furious, and infamously pronounced, "What miserable drones and traitors have I nourished and promoted in my household, who let their lord be treated with such shameful contempt by a low-born clerk?"

Whatever Henry said, it was interpreted as a royal command, and four knights, Reginald fitzUrse, Hugh de Morville, William de Tracy, and Richard le Breton, set out to confront the Archbishop of Canterbury.

On 29 December 1170 they arrived at Canterbury. According to accounts left by the monk Gervase of Canterbury and eyewitness Edward Grim, they placed their weapons under a tree outside the cathedral and hid their mail armour under cloaks before entering to challenge Becket. The knights informed Becket he was to go to Winchester to give an account of his actions, but Becket refused. It was not until Becket refused their demands to submit to the king's will that they retrieved their weapons and rushed back inside for the killing. Becket, meanwhile, proceeded to the main hall for vespers. The four knights, wielding drawn swords, caught up with him in a spot near a door to the monastic cloister, the stairs into the crypt, and the stairs leading up into the choir of the cathedral, where the monks were chanting vespers.

Four contemporary accounts of what happened next exist; of particular note is that of Edward Grim, who was himself wounded in the attack. This is part of the account from Grim:

…The wicked knight leapt suddenly upon him, cutting off the top of the crown which the unction of sacred chrism had dedicated to God. Next he received a second blow on the head, but still he stood firm and immovable. At the third blow he fell on his knees and elbows, offering himself a living sacrifice, and saying in a low voice, 'For the name of Jesus and the protection of the Church, I am ready to embrace death.' But the third knight inflicted a terrible wound as he lay prostrate. By this stroke, the crown of his head was separated from the head in such a way that the blood white with the brain, and the brain no less red from the blood, dyed the floor of the cathedral. The same clerk who had entered with the knights placed his foot on the neck of the holy priest and precious martyr, and, horrible to relate, scattered the brains and blood about the pavements, crying to the others, 'Let us away, knights; this fellow will arise no more”.

Following Becket's death, the monks prepared his body for burial. According to some accounts, including that of Benedict of Peterborough, Prior of Canterbury at the time, it was discovered that Becket had worn a hairshirt under his archbishop's garments—a sign of penance and one Soon after, the faithful throughout Europe began venerating Becket as a martyr, and on 21 February 1173 — little more than two years after his death — he was canonised by Pope Alexander III in St. Peter's Church in Segni. On 12 July 1174, in the midst of the revolt of 1173–1174, Henry humbled himself with public penance at Becket's tomb, which became one of the most popular pilgrimage sites in England.

The monks were afraid that Becket's body might be stolen. To prevent this Becket's remains were placed beneath the floor of the eastern crypt of the cathedral.  A stone cover was placed over the burial place with two holes where pilgrims could insert their heads and kiss the tomb; this arrangement is illustrated in the 'Miracle Windows' of the Trinity Chapel. A guard chamber (now called the Wax Chamber) had a clear view of the grave. In 1220, Becket's bones were moved to a new gold-plated and bejewelled shrine behind the high altar in the Trinity Chapel. The shrine was supported by three pairs of pillars, placed on a raised platform with three steps. This is also illustrated in one of the miracle windows. Canterbury, because of its religious history, had always seen a large number of pilgrims. However, after the death of Thomas Becket, the number of pilgrims visiting the Cathedral rose rapidly.

The shrine stood until it was destroyed in 1538, during the Dissolution of the Monasteries, on orders from Henry VIII. The king also destroyed Becket's bones and ordered that all mention of his name be obliterated.  The pavement where the shrine stood is today marked by a lit candle.

The saint's fame quickly spread throughout the Norman world. The first holy image of Becket is thought to be a mosaic icon still visible in Monreale Cathedral, in Sicily, created shortly after his death. Becket's cousins obtained refuge at the Sicilian court during his exile, and King William II of Sicily was married to a daughter of Henry II. The principal church of the Sicilian city of Marsala is dedicated to St. Thomas Becket. Over forty-five medieval chasse reliquaries decorated in enamel showing scenes from Becket's life survive, including the Becket Casket (now in London’s Victoria & Albert Museum).

​​Late 12th and 13th Centuries

​Just a year after Thomas’s canonisation, in September 1174, the choir was severely damaged by fire. A major rebuilding project began, chronicled by a monk named Gervase.  The crypt survived and it was also possible to retain the external walls. These were increased in height by 12 ft. (3.7m) during the reconstruction, though their round-headed Romanesque windows were unaltered.  The rest of the rebuilding, though, under the direction of Frenchman Willam of Sens, believed to have been involved with the Gothic rebuilding of St. Denis near Paris, adopted the new Gothic style with pointed arches, rib vaulting and flying buttresses. The limestone used was brought from Caen in Normandy, with Purbeck marble being used for the shafting. The choir was reconsecrated by 1180 with the remains of St Dunstan and St Alphege being moved there from the crypt.  Following William’s injury in a fall from the scaffolding in 1179 he was replaced by one of his former assistants, known as 'William the Englishman'

Work continued at the east end in 1180-4, with the demolition of the square-ended eastern chapel to be replaced by the present Trinity Chapel.  This comprised a wide extension including an ambulatory, the purpose of which was to house the shrine of St Thomas Becket. Another circular shaped chapel was constructed beyond that to house particular relics of St. Thomas, in particular the top of his skull, struck off in the course of his assassination. This chapel became known as the "Corona" or "Becket's Crown".  These new areas to the east of the choir transepts were constructed on a higher crypt than Ernulf's choir, requiring steps to be built between the two levels. Work was completed in 1184, although the shrine was not installed until 1220. Subsequently, other important burials that took place in this part of the building included Edward the Black Prince, eldest son of Edward III, and King Henry IV.

The Eadwin Psalter of c.1165, kept at Trinity College Cambridge, includes a ground plan (‘the waterworks plan’) showing the Cathedral and its associated monastic buildings. The plan shows a similar arrangement of cloisters and buildings to those in most Benedictine houses, however, in Canterbury’s case these were to the north of the church, rather than to the south, the more common pattern.  The key group of monastic buildings were located around two cloisters, the great cloister and the infirmary cloister. The great cloister had the nave of the church to the south, with the refectory to the north. Close to the refectory, but unattached to the great cloister, were related buildings, notably the kitchen, 47 ft (14m) square (200m​2), with a pyramidal roof, and the kitchen court; to the west, the butteries, pantries, etc. Opposite the refectory door in the cloister were two lavatories, where the monks washed before and after eating.  The storerooms and lodgings of the Cellarer, responsible for the food provisions of the monastery were on the western side of the cloister.
 
On the eastern side, the dormitory was built over a vaulted undercroft. A second smaller dormitory for the Obedientiaries or monastic officers ran from east to west. Beneath the main dormitory, overlooking the herbarium, was the "pisalis" or "calefactory" the common room of the monks, with the chapter-house alongside.  From the north-east corner of the cloister, there was a route through to the "necessarium"; the toilets. This was a long hall, 145 ft. long by 25 ft. broad (44.2m × 7.6m), which contained fifty-five seats.  Careful thought was given to cleanliness and a water channel ran through the whole length.

​​The Fourteenth to early Sixteenth Centuries

At the beginning of the fourteenth century, Prior Henry of Eastry had a stone choir screen, or "pulpitum" constructed. Prior Oxenden, who succeeded Eastry, oversaw the insertion of a large five-light window into St Anselm's chapel.

In 1377 it was determined that work should begin on a substantial programme rebuilding the Norman nave, transepts and crossing piers. The old apsidal transept chapels were initially retained, but were subsequently replaced in the fifteenth century. The nave was demolished and reconstruction began, using the existing foundations, in the contemporary Perpendicular style from the west end.  The aisle arches are noteworthy for their height in proportion to the clerestory. The transepts, aisles and nave were all roofed with lierne vaulted ceilings enriched with bosses. Most of this work was carried out under the auspices of Prior Thomas Chillenden (1391–1411), whose works also incorporated Eastry's screen into a renovated pulpitum at the east end of the nave. In addition, he oversaw the strengthening of the crossing tower's piers in preparation for rebuilding that too.
 
It was after this grand programme of work on the western half of the building was already underway that the area suffered a significant earthquake in 1382, the epicentre of which was just off the Kent coast in the Straits of Dover. 
John Stow later recounted in his Summarie of Englyshe Chronicles (1565) that on May 21, 1382, 'There was a great earthquake in England, at nine of the clock, fearing the hearts of many; but in Kent it was most vehement, where it sunk some churches and throw them down to the earth.'
 
Canterbury, amongst other damage, lost three of its bells in the collapse of the bell tower. The priority for rebuilding shifted from the nave to reconstruct the cloister and chapter house. This period, following the major human devastation of the Black Death and social disruption which had culminated in the Peasants' Revolt the year before (in which the men of Kent had had a significant part and Lord Chancellor, Archbishop Simon Sudbury had been summarily executed by them on Tower Hill), saw the Cathedral and priory comparatively short of funds. Consequently, the rebuilding of the western towers was neglected.  By the first quarter of the fifteenth century, finances had eased somewhat but the south-west ('Oxford') tower was not finally rebuilt until 1458, and the Norman north-west ('Arundel') tower survived until as late as 1834, when it was replaced by a similar version to its north-western neighbour.
 
By around 1430 a new chapel replaced the south transept apse. It was paid for by Lady Margaret Holland and dedicated to St Michael and All Angels. The north transept's apse was replaced by a Lady Chapel in 1448-55.
 
Prior Chillenden's earlier plans for the crossing tower finally began to see fruition in 1433, leading to a construction 235 ft. high. Additional reinforcement of the central piers was again deemed necessary around the beginning of the sixteenth century, with buttressing arches being added under the southern and western tower arches. One name for the tower is the "Angel Steeple", after a gilded angel that one stood on one of its pinnacles, though it is also commonly referred to as Bell Harry Tower.

Dissolution of the monastery and the Reformation

The cathedral ceased to be an abbey at the Dissolution of the Monasteries when all religious houses were suppressed. Canterbury surrendered in March 1539, and reverted to its previous status of 'a college of secular canons'. The new Cathedral foundation of Dean and Chapter came into being on 8 April 1541.

Subsequent renovations

In 1688, the joiner Roger Davis of London, removed the 13th century misericords and replaced them with two rows of his own work on each side of the choir. Some of Davis's misericords have a distinctly medieval flavour and he may have copied some of the original designs. When Sir George Gilbert Scott performed his renovations in the 19th century, he took out the front row of Davis misericords, replacing them with his own designs, which themselves seem to contain many copies of those at Gloucester and Worcester Cathedrals and New College, Oxford.
 
As mentioned, the original Norman north-west tower survived until 1834. It was capped by a lead spire until 1705.  By the early nineteenth century the tower was giving cause for structural concern. It was replaced with a Perpendicular-style twin of the southwest tower, now known as the "Arundel Tower"'.

Organ

The Great Organ, built by Henry Willis in 1886, with some pipes from Green, is situated in the south choir triforium, with its console on the nave screen or pulpitum.  There is also a nave organ in the north nave aisle. Full details of the organs can be found on the relevant page of the National Pipe Organ Register.

Bells

The cathedral has a total of twenty one bells in its three towers. The south west (Oxford) tower contains the cathedral’s main peal, hung for change ringing in the English style. There are fourteen bells – a ring of twelve with two semi-tones, which allow for ringing on ten, eight or six bells while still remaining in tune. All of the bells were cast in 1981 by the Whitechapel Bell Foundry from seven bells of the old peal of twelve with new metal added, and re-hung in a new frame. The length (draught) of the ropes was increased by lowering the floor of the ringing chamber to the level of the south aisle vault at the same time. The heaviest bell of this ring weighs 34cwt (1.72 tonnes).
 
The north west (Arundel) tower contains the cathedral’s clock chime. The five quarter chimes were taken from the old peal of twelve in the Oxford Tower, where the clock was previously, and hung from beams in the Arundel Tower. The chimes are stuck on the eighth Gregorian tone. The hour is struck on Great Dunstan, the largest bell in Kent 63cwt (3.2 tonnes), which is also swung on Sunday mornings for Matins.
 
In 1316 Prior Eastry donated a large bell dedicated to St Thomas, which weighed 71½ cwt. (3.63 tonnes). Later, in 1343, Prior Hathbrand gave bells dedicated to Jesus and St Dunstan. At this time the bells in the campanile were rehung and their names recorded as “Jesus”, “Dunstan”, “Mary”, “Crundale”, “Elphy” (Alphege) and “Thomas”. In the great earthquake of 1382 the campanile fell, destroying the first three named bells. Following its reconstruction, the other three bells were rehung, together with two others, of whose casting no record remains.
 
The oldest bell in the cathedral is Bell Harry, which hangs in a cage atop the central tower. This bell was cast in 1635, and is struck at 8am and 9pm every day to announce the opening and closing of the cathedral and also occasionally for services as a Sanctus bell.

Library

The cathedral library has a collection of about 30,000 books and pamphlets printed before the 20th century and about 20,000 later books and serials. Many of the earlier books were acquired as part of donated collections. It is rich in church history, older theology, British history (including local history), travel, science and medicine, and the anti-slavery movement. The library's holdings are included in the online catalogue of the library of the University of Kent.

​Contact details for Canterbury Cathedral

Canterbury Cathedral,
Cathedral House,
11 The Precincts,
Canterbury, CT1 2EH
United Kingdom

Tel: +44 (0) 1227 762862
Fax: +44 (0) 1227 865222

Email: enquiries@canterbury-cathedral.org

Website: http://www.canterbury-cathedral.org/


View Larger Map


 

Bibliography

  •  Babington, Margaret, The Romance of Canterbury Cathedral, Raphael Tuck,1955
  •  Blockley, Kevin and Bennett, Paul. Canterbury Cathedral. Canterbury Archaeological Trust, 1993
  •  Collinson, Patrick; Ramsay, Nigel & Sparks, Margaret, ed. A History of Canterbury Cathedral (revised ed.). OUP, 2002 [1995].
  •  Cook, G. H. Portrait of Canterbury Cathedral. London: Phoenix House, 1949.
  •  Greenway, Diana E. ed. Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1066-1300: volume 2: Monastic cathedrals (northern and southern provinces) 1971.
  • Willis, Robert, The Architectural History of Canterbury Cathedral. London: Longman, 1845.
  • Withers, Hartley. The Cathedral Church of Canterbury. Bell's Cathedral Series (2nd revised ed.). London: George Bell, 1897.